[Official test, 6 methods are the most reliable]_How to detect_How to detect
At present, AIDS is the most harmful disease, and the possibility of finding a cure at a later stage is very small. It can be seen that if you want to cure the disease, you must find and treat it as soon as possible. There are many current methods for detecting AIDS. Antibody detection, antigenTests, nucleic acid tests, virus isolation, test strip tests, whole blood and serum tests are all very effective.
1. Antibody detection mainly includes enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunofluorescence test (IFA) and chemiluminescence method.
ELISA uses detergent to lyse HIV or infected cell fluid extracts as antigens, and IFA uses infected cell smears as antigens for antibody detection. If a positive specimen is found, it should be repeated once.
To prevent false positives, Westernblot (WB, protein labeling) can be further confirmed.
The WB method uses polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to separate the HIV protein, and then transfers different protein bands to the nitrocellulose membrane by transfer electrophoresis. After adding the patient’s serum to remove it, it can be stained with anti-human globin protease antibody.Antibodies against different structural proteins, such as anti-gp120, gp41, P24 antibodies, are mostly higher.
The rapid detection method, also known as the gold standard method, is also a method for antibody detection. According to the principle of immunochromatography, it is used for the qualitative detection of HIV antibody detection.
2. Antigen detection The P24 antigen is detected by ELISA. When antibodies have not appeared in the early stage of HIV infection, the antigen is present in the blood.
Because the amount of P24 is too small, the positive rate usually decreases.
The existing method is to dissociate the immune complex method or concentrate the P24 antigen to improve the sensitivity.
3. Detection of HIV gene by PCR method for nucleic acid detection has the advantages of fast, high efficiency, sensitivity and specificity. At present, this method has been included in the early diagnosis of HIV infection and the research of cancer.
Including DNA testing and RNA testing.
4. The common method for virus isolation is the co-culture method, that is, normal humans are separated into blood and separated nuclear cells. After stimulation with PHA and culture, they are added to the diagnosis of monoclonal nuclear cells and cancer research in patients.
5, test strips test AIDS test strips are a new generation of detection reagents developed using colloidal gold immunochromatographic technology.
It can detect HIV-1 / 2 specific antibodies in serum or plasma specimens.
All operation time is 15 minutes in total. The action is adjusted quickly, accurately, and comes with quality control, without all additional drugs.
Suitable for personal testing, also suitable for major hospitals, CDC testing.
6, whole blood and serum testing About whole blood and serum testing, as far as the accuracy of the test results is concerned, as long as the time for judging the results does not exceed 30 minutes, they can be interchanged.
However, for individual rapid self-tests, only whole blood can be used.
Regarding whole blood and serum testing, as long as the judgment time does not exceed 30 minutes, there is no difference.